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Home » Canada » Section 40 Canadian Human Rights Act 1985

Section 40 Canadian Human Rights Act 1985

OTHER CANADIAN LAWS 1. Short title. 2. Purpose. 3. Prohibited grounds of discrimination. 3.1 Multiple grounds of discrimination. 4. Orders regarding discriminatory practices. 5. Denial of good, service, facility or accommodation. 6. Denial of commercial premises or residential accommodation. 7. Employment. 8. Employment applications, advertisements. 9. Employee organizations. 10. Discriminatory policy or practice. 11. Equal wages. 12. Publication of discriminatory notices, etc. 13. [Repealed, 2013, c. 37, s. 2] 14. Harassment. 14.1 Retaliation. 15. Exceptions. 16. Special programs. 17. Plans to meet the needs of disabled persons. 18. Rescinding approval of plan. 19. Opportunity to make representations. 20. Certain provisions not discriminatory. 21. Funds and plans. 22. Regulations. 23. Regulations. 24. Accessibility standards. 25. Definitions. 26. Commission established. 27. Powers, duties and functions. 28. Assignment of duties. 28.1 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. 29. Regulations. 30. Salaries and remuneration. 31. Chief Commissioner. 32. Staff. 32.1 Accessibility unit. 32.2 Pay Equity Unit. 33. Compliance with security requirements. 34. Head office. 35. Majority is a decision of the Commission. 36. Establishment of divisions. 36.1 Pay Equity Division. 37. By-laws. 38. Superannuation, etc. 38.1. Powers, duties and functions. 38.2. Absence or incapacity of Accessibility Commissioner. 38.3. Powers, duties and functions. 38.4 Absence or incapacity of Pay Equity Commissioner. 39. Definition of discriminatory practice. 40. Complaints. 40.01. Disclosure of personal information. 40.1 Definitions. 40.2 Non-application of sections 7, 10 and 11. 41. Commission to deal with complaint. 42. Notice. 43. Designation of investigator. 44. Report. 45. Definition of Review Agency. 46. Report. 47. Appointment of conciliator. 48. Referral of a settlement to Commission. 48.1 Establishment of Tribunal. 48.2 Terms of office. 48.3 Remedial and disciplinary measures. 48.4 Status of members. 48.5 Residence. 48.6 Remuneration. 48.7 Head office. 48.8 [Repealed, 2014, c. 20, s. 415] 48.9 Conduct of proceedings. 49. Request for inquiry. 50. Conduct of inquiry. 51. Duty of Commission on appearing. 52. Hearing in public subject to confidentiality order. 53. Complaint dismissed. 54. Limitation. 54.1. Definitions. 55. and 56. [Repealed, 1998, c. 9, s. 29] 57. Enforcement of order. 58. Application respecting disclosure of information. 59. Intimidation or discrimination. 60. Offence. 61. Annual report of Commission. 61.1 Minister of Justice. 62. Limitation. 63. Application in the territories. 64. Canadian Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 65. Acts of employees, etc. 66. Binding on Her Majesty 67. [Repealed, 2008, c. 30, s. 1]

Section 40 Canadian Human Rights Act

Section 40 Canadian Human Rights Act 1985 is about Complaints. It is under Part III (Discriminatory Practices and General Provisions) of the Act.


(1) Subject to subsections (5) and (7), any individual or group of individuals having reasonable grounds for believing that a person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice may file with the Commission a complaint in a form acceptable to the Commission.

Consent of victim

(2) If a complaint is made by someone other than the individual who is alleged to be the victim of the discriminatory practice to which the complaint relates, the Commission may refuse to deal with the complaint unless the alleged victim consents thereto.

See also  Section 36.1 Canadian Evidence Act 1985

Investigation commenced by Commission

(3) Where the Commission has reasonable grounds for believing that a person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice, the Commission may initiate a complaint.


(3.1) No complaint may be initiated under subsection (3) as a result of information obtained by the Commission in the course of the administration of the Employment Equity Act.

Complaints may be dealt with together

(4) If complaints are filed jointly or separately by more than one individual or group alleging that a particular person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice or a series of similar discriminatory practices and the Commission is satisfied that the complaints involve substantially the same issues of fact and law, it may deal with the complaints together under this Part and may request the Chairperson of the Tribunal to institute a single inquiry into the complaints under section 49.

Multiple allegations

(4.1) If a complaint alleging a discriminatory practice under section 11 also includes allegations to which section 11 does not apply, the Pay Equity Division may

(a) exercise the powers and perform the duties and functions of the Commission under this Part with respect to the complaint as filed; or
(b) at any stage after the filing of the complaint, sever the complaint and refer to the Commission some or all of the allegations that do not allege a discriminatory practice under section 11.

New complaint

(4.2) If the Pay Equity Division refers allegations severed from a complaint to the Commission under paragraph (4.1)(b), the Commission is deemed to have received a new complaint for the purposes of section 40.

See also  Section 45 Canadian Evidence Act 1985

No complaints to be considered in certain cases

(5) No complaint in relation to a discriminatory practice may be dealt with by the Commission under this Part unless the act or omission that constitutes the practice
(a) occurred in Canada and the victim of the practice was at the time of the act or omission either lawfully present in Canada or, if temporarily absent from Canada, entitled to return to Canada;

(b) occurred in Canada and was a discriminatory practice within the meaning of section 5, 8, 10 or 12 in respect of which no particular individual is identifiable as the victim;
(c) occurred outside Canada and the victim of the practice was at the time of the act or omission a Canadian citizen or an individual lawfully admitted to Canada for permanent residence.

Determination of status

(6) Where a question arises under subsection (5) as to the status of an individual in relation to a complaint, the Commission shall refer the question of status to the appropriate Minister and shall not proceed with the complaint unless the question of status is resolved thereby in favour of the complainant.

No complaints to be dealt with in certain cases

(7) No complaint may be dealt with by the Commission pursuant to subsection (1) that relates to the terms and conditions of a superannuation or pension fund or plan, if the relief sought would require action to be taken that would deprive any contributor to, participant in or member of, the fund or plan of any rights acquired under the fund or plan before March 1, 1978 or of any pension or other benefits accrued under the fund or plan to that date, including

See also  Section 31.3 Canadian Evidence Act 1985

(a) any rights and benefits based on a particular age of retirement; and
(b) any accrued survivor’s benefits.

See also:

Section 39 Canadian Human Rights Act (Definition of discriminatory practice)

Section 38.4 Canadian Human Rights Act (Absence or incapacity of Pay Equity Commissioner)

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