Article 29-37 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Article 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, and 37 of the Constitution of Ethiopia 1994, among others, are under Part Two (Democratic Rights) of Chapter Three of the Act. Chapter Three is titled Fundamental Rights and Freedoms.
Article 29 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Right of Thought, Opinion and Expression
1. Everyone has the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression without any interference. This right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any media of his choice.
3. Freedom of the press and other mass media and freedom of artistic creativity is guaranteed. Freedom of the press shall specifically include the following elements:
(a) Prohibition of any form of censorship.
(b) Access to information of public interest.
4. In the interest of the free flow of information, ideas and opinions which are essential to the functioning of a democratic order, the press shall, as an institution, enjoy legal protection to ensure its operational independence and its capacity to entertain diverse opinions.
5. Any media financed by or under the control of the State, shall be operated in a manner ensuring its capacity to entertain diversity in the expression of opinion.
6. These rights can be limited only through laws which are guided by the principle that freedom of expression and information cannot be limited on account of the content or effect of the point of view expressed. Legal limitation can be laid down in order to protect the well-being of the youth, and the honour and reputation of individuals. An propaganda for war as well as the public expression of opinion intended to injure human dignity shall be prohibited by law.
7. Any citizen who violates any legal limitations on the exercice of these rights may be held liable under the law.
Article 30 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
The Right of Assembly, Demonstration and petition
1. Everyone has the right to assemble and to demonstrate together with others peaceably and unarmed, and to petition. Appropriate regulations may be made in the interest of public convenience relating to the location of open-air meetings and the route of movement of demonstrators or, for the protection of democratic rights, public morality and peace during such a meeting or demonstration.
2. This right does not exempt from liability under law enacted to protect the well-being of the youth or the honour and reputation of individuals, and laws prohibiting any propaganda for war and any public expression of opinions intended to injure human dignity.
Article 31 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Freedom of Association
Every person has the right to freedom of association for any cause or purpose. Organizations formed, in violation appropriate laws, or to illegally subvert the constitutional order, or which promote such activities are prohibited.
Article 32 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Freedom of Movement
1. Any Ethiopian or foreign national lawfully in Ethiopia has, within the national territory, the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence, as well as the freedom to leave the country at any time he wishes to.
2. Any Ethiopian national has the right to return to country.
Article 33 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Rights of nationality
1. No Ethiopian national shall be deprived of his or her Ethiopian nationality against his or her will. Marriage of an Ethiopian national of either sex to a foreign national shall not annul his or her Ethiopian nationality.
2. Every Ethiopian national has the right to the enjoyment of all rights, protection and benefits derived from Ethiopian nationality as prescribed by law.
3. Any national has the right to change his Ethiopian nationality.
4. Ethiopian nationality may be conferred upon foreigners in accordance with law enacted and procedures established consistent with international agreements ratified by Ethiopia.
Article 34 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Marital, Personal and Family Rights
1. Men and women, without any distinction as to race, nation, nationality or religion, who have attained marriageable age as defined by law, have the right to marry and found a family. They have equal rights while entering into, during marriage and at the time of divorce. Laws shall be enacted to ensure the protection of rights and interests of children at the time of divorce.
2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
3. The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
4. In accordance with provisions to be specified by law, a law giving recognition to marriage concluded under systems of religious or customary laws may be enacted.
5. This Constitution shall not preclude the adjudication of disputes relating to persona! and family laws in accordance with religious or customary laws, with the consent of the parties to the dispute. Particulars shall be determined by law.
Article 35 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Rights of Women
1. Women shall, in the enjoyment of rights and protections provided for by this Constitution, have equal right with men.
2. Women have equal rights with men in marriage as prescribed by this Constitution.
3. The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account, women, in order to remedy this legacy, are entitled to affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall be to provide special attention to women so as to enable them compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social and economic life as well as in public and private institutions.
4. The State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influences of harmful customs. Laws, customs and practices that oppress or cause bodily or mental harm to women are prohibited.
5. (a) Women have the right to maternity leave with full pay. The duration of maternity leave shall be determined by law taking into account the nature of the work, the health of the mother and the well- being of the child and family.
(b) Maternity leave may, in accordance with the provisions of law, include prenatal leave with full pay.
6. Women have the right to full consultation in the formulation of national development policies, the designing and execution of projects, and particularly in the case of projects affecting the interests of women.
7. Women have the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property. In particular, they have equal rights with men with respect to use, transfer, administration and control of land. They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the inheritance of property.
8. Women shall have a right to equality in employment, promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements.
9. To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the right of access to family planning education, information and capacity.
Article 36 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Rights of Children
1. Every child has the right:
(a) To life;
(b) To a name and nationality;
(c) To know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardians;
(d) Not to be subject to exploitative practices, neither to be required nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being;
(e) To be free of corporal punishment or cruel and inhumane treatment in schools and other institutions responsible for the care of children.
2. In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the primary consideration shall be the best interests of the child.
3. Juvenile offenders admitted to corrective or rehabilitative institutions, and juveniles who become wards of the State or who are placed in public or private orphanages, shall be kept separately from adults.
4. Children born out of wedlock shall have the same rights as children born of wedlock.
5. The State shall accord special protection to orphans and shall encourage the establishment of institutions which ensure and promote their adoption and advance their welfare, and education.
Article 37 Ethiopian Constitution 1994
Right of Access to Justice
1. Everyone has the right to bring a justiciable matter to, and obtain a decision or judgement by, a court of law or any other competent body with judicial power.
2. the decision or judgement referred to under sub-Article 1 of this Article may also be sought by:
(a) Any association representing the collective or individual interest of its members; or
(b) An group or person who is a member of, or represents a group with similar interests.