The Laws of Nigeria are divided majorly into Federal and State laws. In Nigeria, Bicameral legislation exists at the Federal level and unicameral legislation at the States. The Federal Legislature makes law for the whole federation. It is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. These are jointly called the National Assembly. The House of Assembly is the law making house at the States.
Below are some of the major laws of Nigeria.
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) is the grundnorm of the country. It is the law to which every state action and law is subject. Section 1 of the Constitution expressly provides for the Supremacy of the constitution. It is over and above any other law in the country.
The Criminal Code Act, and it northern counterpart (Penal Code) provides broadly for series of actions and omissions constituting offences in Nigeria, and their attributed punishments. Section 2 of the Criminal Code Act defines an offence. That is, “An act or omission which renders the person doing the act or making the emission liable to punishment under this code, or under any Act, or Law.”
The Evidence Act 2011 is an act for the Federal Republic of Nigeria that regulates the admissibility, relevance and other processes relating to the use of evidences in a legal proceeding.
It is important to note that the proving of a fact in court relies on evidences. Therefore, awareness of the law as it relates to the acceptable procedure for administering evidences before a court is of crucial importance.
The Land Use Act vests all land in a state in the Governor of the State. This is subject to other provisions of the Act. This is in accordance with section 1 of the Act. It provides for the control and management of Land, rents, certificates of occupancy, etc.
The Labour Act of Nigeria is a central statute that provides for the relationship between an employer and the employee.
The Bank and other Financial Institutions Act, 2020 provides comprehensively for the creation and regulation of financial institutions in Nigeria.