Article 31A-31D Indian Constitution 1949 (with amendments)

Preamble Article 1-4 (THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY) Article 5-11 (CITIZENSHIP) Article 12-13 (General) Article 14-18 (Right to Equality) Article 19-22 (Right to Freedom) Article 23-24 (Right against Exploitation) Article 25-28 (Right to Freedom of Religion) Article 29-31 (Cultural and Educational Rights) Article 31A-31D (Saving of Certain Laws) Article 32-35 (Right to Constitutional Remedies) Article 36-43B Article 44-51 Article 51A (Fundamental duties) Article 52-61 Article 62-71 Article 72-78 Article 79-88 Article 89-98 (Officers of Parliament) Article 99-100 (Conduct of Business) Article 101-104 (Disqualifications of Members) Article 105-106 (Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Member) Article 107-111 (Legislative Procedure) Article 112-117 (Procedure in Financial Matters) Article 118-122 (Procedure Generally) Article 123 (Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament) Article 124-131A Article 132-139A Article 140-147 Article 148-151 (COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA) Article 152-162 Article 163-167 Article 168-177 (THE STATE LEGISLATURE – General) Article 178-187 (Officers of the State Legislature) Article 188-195 Article 196-201 (Legislative Procedure) Article 202-207 (Procedure in Financial Matters) Article 208-212 (Procedure Generally ) Article 213 (Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature) Article 214-223 Article 224-232 Article 233-237 (SUBORDINATE COURTS ) Article 238-242 Article 243-243G Article 243H-243O Article 243P-243Y Article 243Z-243ZG Article 243ZH-243ZT Article 244-244A (THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS) Article 245-255 (Distribution of Legislative Powers) Article 256-263 Article 264-267 (FINANCE – General) Article 268-281 (Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States) Article 282-291 (Miscellaneous financial provisions) Article 292-293 (BORROWING) Article 294-300 (Miscellaneous financial provisions) Article 300A-307 Article 308-314 Article 315-323 Article 323A-329A (TRIBUNALS) Article 330-336 (Miscellaneous financial provisions) Article 337-342A (Miscellaneous financial provisions) Article 343-351 (OFFICIAL LANGUAGE) Article 352-360 (EMERGENCY PROVISIONS) Article 361-367 (MISCELLANEOUS) Article 368-371J Article 372-392 Article 393-395 First Schedule Second Schedule Third Schedule Fourth Schedule Fifth Schedule Sixth Schedule Seventh Schedule Eighth Schedule Ninth Schedule Tenth Schedule Eleventh Schedule Twelfth Schedule

Article 31A-31D Indian Constitution 1949

Article 31A, 31B, 31C, and 31D of the Constitution of India 1949 are under Saving of Certain Laws of Part III of the Constitution. Part III is titled ‘FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS’.

Article 31A Indian Constitution 1949

Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.

[(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law providing for—
(a) the acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the extinguishment or modification of any such rights, or
(b) the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or
(c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or
(d) the extinguishment or modification of any rights of managing agents, secretaries and treasurers, managing directors, directors or managers of corporations, or of any voting rights of shareholders thereof, or
(e) the extinguishment or modification of any rights accruing by virtue of any agreement, lease or licence for the purpose of searching for, or winning, any mineral or mineral oil, or the premature termination or cancellation of any such agreement, lease or licence, shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by 5
[article 14 or article 19]:

Provided that where such law is a law made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent:]

See also  Article 1-4 Indian Constitution 1949 (with amendments)

[Provided further that where any law makes any provision for the acquisition by the State of any estate and where any land comprised therein is held by a person under his personal cultivation, it shall not be lawful for the State to acquire any portion of such land as is within the ceiling limit applicable to him under any law for the time being in force or any building or structure standing thereon or appurtenant thereto,
unless the law relating to the acquisition of such land, building or structure, provides for payment of compensation at a rate which shall not be less than the market value thereof.]

(2) In this article,—

[(a) the expression “estate” shall, in relation to any local area, have the same meaning as that expression or its local equivalent has in the existing law relating to land tenures in force in that area and shall also include—

(i) any jagir, inam or muafi or other similar grant and in the States of [Tamil Nadu] and Kerala, any janmam right;
(ii) any land held under ryotwari settlement;
(iii) any land held or let for purposes of agriculture or for purposes ancillary thereto, including waste land, forest land, land for pasture or sites of buildings and other structures occupied by cultivators of land, agricultural labourers and village artisans;]
(b) the expression “rights”, in relation to an estate, shall include any rights vesting in a proprietor, sub-proprietor, under-proprietor, tenure-holder, 2 [raiyat, under-raiyat]or other intermediary and any rights or privileges in respect of land revenue.]

Article 31B Indian Constitution 1949

Validation of certain Acts and Regulations

Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provisions thereof shall be deemed to be void, or ever to have become void, on the ground that
such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any provisions of this Part, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court or Tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts and Regulations shall, subject to the power of any competent Legislature to repeal or amend it, continue in force.

See also  Article 112-117 Indian Constitution 1949 (with amendments)

Article 31C Indian Constitution 1949

Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles

Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing
[all or any of the principles laid down in Part IV] shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by
[article 14 or article 19]; 7
[and no law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground that it does not give effect to such policy]:

Provided that where such law is made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent.]

Article 31D Indian Constitution 1949

[Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities.]

*Omitted by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 2 (w.e.f. 13-4-1978).


See also:

Article 29 Indian Constitution 1949 (Protection of interests of minorities)

Article 29-31 Indian Constitution 1949 (Cultural and Educational Rights)

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