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Home » Articles » Are Trademarks Well Protected In Nigeria? – Peace Omodara

Are Trademarks Well Protected In Nigeria? – Peace Omodara

Trademarks protection in Nigeria

Trademarks Protection In Nigeria

Trademarks protection in Nigeria is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires careful attention and concerted efforts.


The intricate nexus between intellectual property rights and the modern global economy cannot be overstated. In the realm of commerce, trademarks serve as invaluable assets, distinguishing products or services and embodying a business’s reputation, goodwill, and brand identity.1

Their significance as intangible commodities is firmly rooted in the ability to safeguard consumer interests, stimulate competition, and foster innovation.

However, in an era marked by increasing globalization and technological advancement, the effectiveness of trademark protection mechanisms demands heightened scrutiny.2

The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate the state of trademark protection in Nigeria, a nation with a vibrant economy and a burgeoning consumer market. In examining the Nigerian trademark landscape, the essay shall delve into the legislative framework, explore the challenges faced by stakeholders, and evaluate the efficacy of current measures. By doing so, this essay aims to shed light on the extent to which trademarks are safeguarded within the Nigerian context and provide insights into potential areas for improvement.

Overview Of Trademarks Protection

Trademark protection plays a vital role in modern business and commerce, serving as a crucial mechanism for businesses to establish brand identity, differentiate their product and cultivate consumer trust.3

This section shall delve into the intricate legal framework governing trademark protection in Nigeria, focusing on the laws, regulations, and international agreements that shape and safeguard trademark rights. By analyzing the Trademarks Act of 1965 and its interplay with relevant legislation, regulations, and international obligations, this section aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the legal framework for trademark protection in Nigeria.

At the core of trademark protection in Nigeria lies the Trademarks Act of 1965.4 This legislation serves as the primary legal instrument governing trademark registration, rights, and enforcement.5

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The Act establishes the Nigerian Trademarks Registry, entrusted with the responsibility of administering and overseeing trademark-related matters. It outlines the criteria for trademark eligibility, the process of registration, and the duration of trademark protection.

Additionally, the Act addresses trademark infringement, remedies, and enforcement procedures, establishing a robust legal framework for safeguarding trademark rights. Relevant provisions of the Act include Section 3, 5, 6, and 7 which provides for infringement of trademarks in Nigeria and the remedies available. Section 9 which establishes the requirements and procedure for trademark registration in Nigeria, Section 22 and 23 which provides for the duration, renewal, and restoration of trademarks,6 and so on.

Other important legal instruments include The Merchandise Marks Act,7 The Trademark Regulation 1967, The Trademark Malpractices (Miscellaneous Offences) Act,8 The Counterfeit and Fake Drugs and Unwholesome Processed Foods (Miscellaneous Provisions),9 the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement), and so on.

Judicial Mechanisms For Trademarks Disputes

Trademark disputes in Nigeria are adjudicated by the Federal High Court, which has exclusive jurisdiction over matters relating to trademarks.10

Section 23 of the Trademarks Act confers jurisdiction on the Federal High Court to hear and determine trademark-related matters, including infringement actions, cancellation proceedings, and appeals from decisions of the Registrar.

Civil Remedies and Damages (Section 26)

Section 26 of the Trademarks Act provides for civil remedies in trademark infringement cases. The court may grant injunctive relief, damages, accounts of profits, and the delivery up or destruction of infringing goods or materials. The Act allows for the award of both actual damages and additional damages, providing a comprehensive framework for compensating trademark owners.

Criminal Offenses and Penalties (Sections 20, 22, and 25)

Sections 20, 22, and 25 of the Trademarks Act establish criminal offences and penalties for trademark infringement. These provisions allow for the prosecution of offenders engaged in counterfeiting, piracy, or unauthorized use of registered trademarks. Penalties upon conviction include fines and imprisonment, serving as deterrents to trademark infringement.

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Challenges In Trademarks Protection In Nigeria

Trademark protection serves as a critical component of intellectual property rights, allowing businesses to establish brand identity, protect their market share, and foster consumer trust. However,   trademark   protection in Nigeria faces various challenges that hinder its effectiveness.11

Some of these highlighted challenges include counterfeiting, infringement, inadequate legislation, and poor enforcement mechanisms. In the next section, initiatives which the government has taken to combat these challenges shall be addressed and pragmatic solutions which represent a way forward shall be proffered.

Efforts And Initiatives To Improve Trademarks Protection

The Nigerian government and relevant agencies have recognized the urgent need to strengthen trademark protection and combat the challenges posed by counterfeiting infringement, and inadequate legislation.12 These concerted efforts aim to enhance the legal framework, implement initiatives, drive legal reforms, and foster collaborations with international organizations and stakeholders. Some of these methods include:

1. The establishment of dedicated agencies and bodies responsible for intellectual property rights enforcement such as the Nigerian Trademarks Registry, which has made strides in streamlining trademark registration processes, improving efficiency, and facilitating access to information for trademark owners as well as the Nigerian Copyright Commission (NCC).

2. Launching of several initiatives to strengthen trademark protection in Nigeria. One of such agency is the Anti-Counterfeiting Collaboration (ACC) Nigeria. This agency serves as a platform for collaboration between government agencies, rights holders, and relevant stakeholders. This initiative focuses on intelligence sharing, capacity building, and joint operations to combat counterfeiting and trademark infringements.

3. Implementation of public awareness campaigns and educational programs to educate consumers, businesses, and law enforcement agencies about the importance of trademark protection.


In conclusion, trademarks protection in Nigeria is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires careful attention and concerted efforts. While trademarks play a crucial role in business and commerce, fostering brand identity, consumer trust, and economic growth, challenges such as counterfeiting, infringement, and inadequate legislation persist.

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However, the Nigerian government and relevant agencies have recognized the importance of addressing these challenges and have taken steps to improve trademark protection. Efforts have been made to establish dedicated bodies responsible for intellectual property rights enforcement, streamline registration procedures, and strengthen enforcement mechanisms. Initiatives such as the Anti-Counterfeiting Collaboration (ACC) Nigeria have facilitated intelligence sharing, capacity building, and joint operations to combat counterfeiting. Furthermore, legal reforms and policy changes are being pursued to address legislative gaps and enhance the legal framework.

To improve trademark protection further, it is recommended to strengthen the legal framework by addressing ambiguities, streamlining administrative processes, and enhancing cooperation among enforcement agencies.

About Author

Omodara Peace is a 500L Law Student and President of the Intellectual Property Law Club, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

  1. Aderonke Alex-Adedipe “Protection and Enforcement of Trademarks in NIgeria” (2021) ghts-in-nigeria accessed 28 May 2023. []
  2. WIPO “Making a Mark: An Introduction to Trademarks for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises” WIPO Publication No 900 []
  3. Inioluwa Olaposi “Trademarks in Nigeria: Registration and Protection” (2022) accessed 28 May 2023 []
  4. The Trademarks Act, CAP T13, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN) 2004 (The Trademarks Act) []
  5. Resolution Law Firm “Trademark Registration in Nigeria” (2022) accessed 25 May 2023. []
  6. IGLG “Trademark Laws and Regulation -Nigeria” 2023 accessed 27 May, 2023. []
  7. The Merchandise Marks Act CAP M10, LFN 2004 []
  8. The Trademark Malpractices (Miscallenous Offences) Act, CAP T12 LFN, 2004 []
  9. The Counterfeit and Fake Drugs and Unwholesome Processed Foods (Miscallenous Provisions)# Act, CAP C34, LFN 2004. []
  10. Thomson Reuters “Trademark Litigation in Nigeria: An Overview of the Court System” (2022),rights%20and%20other%20related%20matters accessed 27 May 2023. []

  11. Ibijoke Patricia “The Challenges of Trademark Protection in Nigeria” (2018) ce=1&isAllowed=y accessed 28 May 2023. []
  12. Supra Note 9 []

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