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Lady Justice: History, Meaning, Relevance, and Components – Aanuoluwa OLA Esq.

lady justice history meaning and components

The History, Meaning, Relevance, and Components of the Lady of Justice

Lady Justice embodies the essence of legal symbols that champion fairness and equity, emphasizing that all individuals must be treated without bias or discrimination in legal proceedings. As a female figure, she symbolizes justice itself.


This work provides a comprehensive overview of the history, significance, and components of the iconic symbol known as Lady Justice. It delves into her origins, which trace back to Greek mythology where she emerges as a daughter of Themis and Zeus.

The report investigates her multifaceted character, including her incarnations as Dike and Astraea, highlighting the role each played in different contexts. The representation of Lady Justice as a deity of divine justice, wielding scales and a sword, is presented through a lens that combines historical, mythological, and artistic perspectives.

The concept of Lady Justice carries profound meaning in legal systems worldwide. Her symbolism, resonant with ideals of fairness and equity, has led to her ubiquity in legal settings such as courthouses, law libraries, and educational institutions. The report explores the three primary components that define Lady Justice: the Scales, embodying the balanced evaluation of evidence; the Sword, symbolizing swift and authoritative justice; and the Blindfold, representing impartiality and unbiased judgment.

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Moreover, the report underscores the enduring relevance of Lady Justice, whose principles align with notions of objectivity, impartiality, and the rule of law. Her iconic image serves as a potent reminder of the necessity for justice systems to treat all individuals equally and without prejudice. By delving into Lady Justice’s origins and multifaceted symbolism, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of the profound impact she continues to exert on legal philosophy and practice.


This work provides a comprehensive overview of the historical and mythological origins of the concept of Lady Justice, her various incarnations, symbolism, and representations across cultures. It also discusses the modern-day relevance and the variety of depictions that exist. Here’s a breakdown of the different parts:

History of Lady Justice

Lady Justice, a mythological goddess, was born of the union between Themis and Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. As one of the Titans, the pre-Hellenic nature deities born to Uranus and Ge, she held a prominent role even after Zeus’s overthrow of the old pantheon. In artistic depictions, she is often portrayed carrying the scales of justice in one hand and a sword in the other, with her eyes veiled. Her renown extended to becoming an oracle at Delphi, where she came to be known as a deity of divine justice.

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In a different facet, Lady Justice assumed the persona of Dike. Widely recognized as a goddess of justice, Dike’s realm encompassed the allocation of resources among mortals, safeguarding individuals, and maintaining social and political order. Her emblem was a sword, yet she lacked the symbolic scales of justice. There are instances where Dike is linked (or possibly confused) with Astraea.

Astraea, also attributed to Themis and Zeus as her progenitors, bore the mantle of a goddess of justice. Sometimes referred to as the offspring of Eos and Astraeus, she carried a balance or scale, while her head was adorned with ears of grain. After the Golden Age, Astraea was the final immortal to depart from Earth, eventually becoming the constellation Virgo. Her character also embodied purity and innocence. Conversely, Dike left the earthly realm upon the emergence of the Bronze Age.

In Egypt, the daughter of the sun god Ra, Maat, received veneration as a symbol of justice. Armed with a sword, Maat did not bear the scales of justice. In Roman culture, Justitia, a goddess of justice, wore a blindfold and was depicted both with and without a sword and scales.

Representations of the Lady of Justice are widespread in Western tradition, taking various forms and appearing across different eras. In some renditions, she dons a blindfold, especially prevalent in Europe, while in others, her blindfold is absent. Typically grasping a sword and scales, she is often draped in flowing robes, exuding a mature yet not aged demeanor. Her association with Themis has waned, as she has evolved into a symbol epitomizing impartial and fair legal administration, devoid of corruption, greed, bias, or preference.

The iconic image of Justice with her scales and sword is familiar to many. Importantly, her blindfold is symbolic rather than literal. The version of Lady Justice described above finds a place on the author’s homepage.

However, countless interpretations of the Goddess of Justice abound on the internet, as evidenced by the provided links. To navigate the links without encountering pop-up ads, users are advised to right-click and opt for ‘open new window.’

The author has personal favorites among these representations, including statues in Liberia and Kazakhstan, a relief sundial in France, the Borland graphic, a neon light image in Nevada, various paintings, and even unconventional symbols like Baltimore’s fish and Beavercreek’s Beaver. Additionally, the Ortega brand scales and the California seal tattoo also hold a special place among these varied depictions.

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Meaning of Lady Justice

Eleanor Roosevelt once articulated the notion that Justice should not favor one side exclusively, but instead be impartial and serve both. This insightful statement gains even more depth when pondering Lady Justice, an iconic legal symbol synonymous with the principles of impartiality and even-handedness.

The image of Lady Justice is a frequent presence within the legal sphere. She graces the surroundings of courthouses, law libraries, and law schools, as well as other institutions where legal matters hold significance. It’s likely that you’ve encountered a representation of Lady Justice at some point in your life—an image that often portrays a blindfolded woman draped in robes reminiscent of a Greek toga. In her hands, she elegantly holds the scales of justice, and on occasion, a sword.

Components of Lady Justice

As previously mentioned, Lady Justice is a frequent sight adorning courthouses and legal establishments worldwide. While her portrayal may vary by region, certain core elements remain consistent.

She is often depicted carrying a sword, the scales of justice for weighing, and usually (though not universally) wears a blindfold. Cloaked in a Greco-Roman toga or tunica, reminiscent of classical goddesses, philosophers, and prophets, her image transcends cultural boundaries. Essentially, Lady Justice comprises four key components:

The Scales

The origin of the scales dates back to ancient Egyptian times, where the god Anubis would be depicted with scales to measure a departed soul’s worth against the Feather of Truth.

Evolving through the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason, Lady Justice uses these scales to evaluate case factors and render decisions. The scales signify a systematic, rational process, whereby an excess of evidence on one side tips the balance towards either innocence or guilt.

The Sword

Often held in her hand, the sword is an emblem of authority steeped in historical context, having been wielded by monarchs, emperors, and generals. It stands as one of the earliest symbols of justice, embodying the potency of a ruler’s decree with a single stroke.

Even today, the sword remains integral to ceremonial knighthood, where the honored are tapped on the shoulder. Lady Justice’s sword symbolizes the swiftness and finality that justice can bring.

Blind Justice

This principle dictates that the law should be approached objectively, rendering judgments of innocence or guilt without any hint of bias or prejudice. This concept aligns with the motto of the United States Supreme Court, “Equal Justice Under Law.” The iconic blindfolded statue of Lady Justice epitomizes this idea.

Her blindfold signifies the philosophy that justice should be meted out “without passion or prejudice,” focusing solely on the facts presented on her scale. Emotional impressions of the accused do not enter into the equation. Notably, not all depictions of Lady Justice feature the blindfold.

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The Garment

Lady Justice dons the attire of ancient Greece and Rome, reflecting her lineage as an interpretation of Justitia. Additionally, this choice underscores the significance of the toga in Western tradition; such garments symbolized civilization and philosophy. An adage from ancient Rome, “Cedant arma togae,” translates to “Let arms (war) give way to the toga (civil power).”

In essence, Lady Justice’s iconic representation transcends borders and cultures, embodying the core tenets of impartiality, authority, objectivity, and civilization.

Summary and Conclusion

This report provides an overview of Lady Justice, exploring her origins, interpretation, and the significance of her components. Lady Justice’s birth is attributed to the union of Themis and Zeus in Greek mythology. Notably, she has two counterparts—Astraea, the daughter of Eos and Astraeus, and Maat, the daughter of the sun god Ra.

Lady Justice embodies the essence of legal symbols that champion fairness and equity, emphasizing that all individuals must be treated without bias or discrimination in legal proceedings. As a female figure, she symbolizes justice itself.

The components that define Lady Justice include “Blind Justice,” signifying the impartiality that transcends distinctions when making legal judgments. The “Scales” represent the principle of equitable treatment regardless of the parties involved. The “Sword” signifies the swiftness and ultimate authority in rendering justice. Lastly, the “Garment” embodies civilization, philosophy, and the embodiment of Justitia.

In conclusion, Lady Justice epitomizes the concept of justice. Her principles, if diligently applied in the legal practices of any community, society, or country, could substantially reduce conflicts and foster peaceful coexistence.

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About Author

Aanuoluwa Oluwapelumi OLA Esq. (LLB, BL, AMNIM, MADRS) is a former NYSC Associate at Shelter View & Investment Nig. Ltd {Law Link Chambers}. He currently serves as a Paralegal Researcher at Akintunde F. Adeyemo, PLLC. Simultaneously, he has been steering the ship of two successful start-ups, LAPONISM CONCEPT and BAM Entertainment. Email: [email protected]

Aanuoluwa Oluwapelumi

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