Section 14 Indian Evidence Act 1872

Section 1-2 3. Interpretation-clause Section 4 5. Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts. 6. Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction 7. Facts which are the occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue 8. Motive, preparation and previous or subsequent conduct 9. Facts necessary to explain or introduce relevant facts 10. Things said or done by conspirator in reference to common design 11. When facts not otherwise relevant become relevant 12. In suits for damages, facts tending to enable Court to determine amount are relevant 13. Facts relevant when right or custom is in question 14. Facts showing existence of state of mind, or of body, of bodily feeling 15. Facts bearing on question whether act was accidental or intentional 16. Existence of course of business when relevant 17. Admission defined 18. Admission 19. Admissions by persons whose position must be proved as against party to suit 20. Admissions by persons expressly referred to by party to suit 21. Proof of admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalf 22. When oral admissions as to contents of documents are relevant 22A. When oral admission as to contents of electronic records are relevant 23. Admissions in civil cases when relevant 24. Confession caused by inducement, threat or promise, when irrelevant in criminal proceeding. 25. Confession to police-officer not to be proved 26. Confession by accused while in custody of Police not to be proved against him. 27. How much of information received from accused, may be proved 28. Confession made after removal of impression caused by inducement, threat or promise, relevant. 29. Confession otherwise relevant not to become irrelevant because of promise of secrecy, etc. 30. Consideration of proved confession affecting person making it and others jointly under trial for same offence. 31. Admissions not conclusive proof, but may estop. 32. Cases in which statement of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found, etc., is relevant. 33. Relevancy of certain evidence for proving, in subsequent proceeding, the truth of facts therein stated 34. Entries in books of account when relevant. 35. Relevancy of entry in public record made in performance of duty. 36. Relevancy of statements in maps, charts and plans. 37. Relevancy of statement as to fact of public nature contained in certain Acts or notifications. 38. Relevancy of statements as to any law contained in law-books. 39. What evidence to be given when statement from part of a conversation, document, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers. 40. Previous judgments relevant to bar a second suit or trial. 41. Relevancy of certain judgments in probate, etc., jurisdiction. 42. Relevancy and effect of judgments, orders or decrees, other than those mentioned in section 41. 43. Judgments, etc., other than those mentioned in sections 40, 41 and 42, when relevant. 44. Fraud or collusion in obtaining judgment, or incompetency of Court, may be proved. 45. Opinions of experts. 45A. Opinion of Examiner of Electronic Evidence 46. Facts hearing upon opinions of experts. 47. Opinion as to handwriting, when relevant. 47A. Opinion as to digital signature, when relevant 48. Opinion as to existence of right or custom, when relevant. 49. Opinion as to usages, tenets, etc., when relevant. 50. Opinion on relationship, when relevant. 51. Grounds of opinion, when relevant. 52. In civil cases character to prove conduct imputed, irrelevant. 53. In criminal cases previous good character relevant. 53A. Evidence of character or previous sexual experience not relevant in certain cases. 54. Previous bad character not relevant, except in reply. 55. Character as affecting damages 56. Fact judicially noticeable need not be proved. 57. Facts of which Court must take judicial notice. 58. Facts admitted need not be proved. 59. Proof of facts by oral evidence. 60. Oral evidence must be direct. 61. Proof of contents of documents. 62. Primary evidence. 63. Secondary evidence. 64. Proof of documents by primary evidence. 65. Cases in which secondary evidence relating to documents may be given 65A. Special provisions as to evidence relating to electronic record. 65B. Admissibility of electronic records. 66. Rules as to notice to produce. 67. Proof of signature and handwriting of person alleged to have signed or written document produced. 67A. Proof as to electronic signature. 68. Proof of execution of document required by law to be attested. 69. Proof where no attesting witness found. 70. Admission of execution by party to attested document 71. Proof when attesting witness denies the execution. 72. Proof of document not required by law to be attested. 73. Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or proved. 73A. Proof as to verification of digital signature. 74. Public documents. 75. Private documents. 76. Certified copies of public documents. 77. Proof of documents by production of certified copies. 78. Proof of other official documents. 79. Presumption as to genuineness of certified copies 80. Presumption as to documents produced as record of evidence. 81. Presumption as to Gazettes, newspapers, private Acts of Parliament and other documents. 81A. Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms. 82. Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signature. 83. Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government. 84. Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions. 85. Presumptions as to powers-of-attorney. 85A. Presumption as to electronic agreements. 85B. Presumption as to electronic records and electronic signatures. 85C. Presumption as to electronic signature certificates. 86. Presumption as to certified copies of foreign judicial records. 87. Presumption as to books, maps and charts. 88. Presumption as to telegraphic messages. 88A. Presumption as to electronic messages. 89. Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not produced. 90. Presumption as to documents thirty years old 90A. Presumption as to electronic records five years old. 91. Evidence of terms of contracts, grants and other dispositions of property reduced to form of document. 92. Exclusion of evidence of oral agreement. 93. Exclusion of evidence to explain or amend ambiguous document. 94. Exclusion of evidence against application of document to existing facts. 95. Evidence as to document unmeaning in reference to existing facts. 96. Evidence as to application of language which can apply to one only of several persons. 97. Evidence as to application of language to one of two sets of facts, to neither of which the whole correctly applies. 98. Evidence as to meaning of illegible characters, etc. 99. Who may give evidence of agreement varying terms of document. 100. Saving of provisions of Indian Succession Act relating to wills. 101. Burden of proof. 102. On whom burden of proof lies. 103. Burden of proof as to particular fact. 104. Burden of proving fact to be proved to make evidence admissible 105. Burden of proving that case of accused comes within exceptions. 106. Burden of proving fact especially within knowledge. 107. Burden of proving death of person known to have been alive within thirty years. 108. Burden of proving that person is alive who has not been heard of for seven years. 109. Burden of proof as to relationship in the cases of partners, landlord and tenant, principal and agent. 110. Burden of proof as to ownership. 111. Proof of good faith in transactions where one party is in relation of active confidence. 111A. Presumption as to certain offences. 112. Birth during marriage, conclusive proof of legitimacy. 113. Proof of cession of territory. 113A. Presumption as to abetment of suicide by a married woman. 113B. Presumption as to dowry death. 114. Court may presume existence of certain facts. 114A. Presumption as to absence of consent in certain prosecution for rape 115. Estoppel. 116. Estoppel of tenants and of licensee of person in possession. 117. Estoppel of acceptor of bill of exchange, bailee or licensee. 118. Who may testify. 119. Witness unable to communicate verbally. 120. Parties to civil suit, and their wives or husbands. Husband or wife of person under criminal trial. 121. Judges and Magistrates. 122. Communications during marriage 123. Evidence as to affairs of State. 124. Official communications. 125. Information as to commission of offences. 126. Professional communications. 127. Section 126 to apply to interpreters, etc. 128. Privilege not waived by volunteering evidence 129. Confidential communications with legal advisers. 130. Production of title-deeds of witness not a party. 131. Production of documents or electronic records which another person, having possession, could refuse to produce. 132. Witness not excused from answering on ground that answer will criminate. 133. Accomplice. 134. Number of witnesses. 135. Order of production and examination of witnesses. 136. Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidence. 137. Examination-in-chief. Cross-examination. Re-examination. 138. Order of examinations. Direction of re-examination. 139. Cross-examination of person called to produce a document. 140. Witnesses to character. 141. Leading questions. 142. When they must not be asked. 143. When they may be asked. 144. Evidence as to matters in writing 145. Cross-examination as to previous statements in writing 146. Questions lawful in cross-examination. 147. When witness to be compelled to answer. 148. Court to decide when question shall be asked and when witness compelled to answer. 149. Question not to be asked without reasonable grounds. 150. Procedure of Court in case of question being asked without reasonable grounds. 151. Indecent and scandalous questions. 152. Questions intended to insult or annoy. 153. Exclusion of evidence to contradict answers to questions testing veracity. 154. Question by party to his own witness. 155. Impeaching credit of witness. 156. Questions tending to corroborate evidence of relevant fact, admissible. 157. Former statements of witness may be proved to corroborate later testimony as to same fact. 158. What matters may be proved in connection with proved statement relevant under section 32 or 33. 159. Refreshing memory. 160. Testimony to facts stated in document mentioned in section159. 161. Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memory. 162. Production of documents. Translation of documents. 163. Giving, as evidence, of document called for and produced on notice. 164. Using, as evidence, of document production of which was refused on notice 165. Judge’s power to put questions or order production. 166. Power of jury or assessors to put questions. 167. No new trial for improper admission or rejection of evidence. THE SCHEDULE [Repealed.]

Section 14 Indian Evidence Act 1872

Section 14 of the Indian Evidence Act 1872 is about ‘Facts showing existence of state of mind, or of body, of bodily feeling’. It is under Chapter II of the Act. Chapter II is titled OF THE RELEVANCY OF FACTS.

Facts showing existence of state of mind, or of body, of bodily feeling

Facts showing the existence of any state of mind such as intention, knowledge, good faith, negligence, rashness, ill-will or good-will towards any particular person, or showing the existence of any state of body or bodily feeling are relevant, when the existence of any such state of mind or body or bodily feeling, is in issue or relevant.

[Explanation 1. –– A fact relevant as showing the existence of a relevant state of mind must show that the state of mind exists, not generally, but in reference to the particular matter in question.

Explanation 2. –– But where, upon the trial of a person accused of an offence, the previous commission by the accused of an offence is relevant within the meaning of this section, the previous conviction of such person shall also be a relevant fact.]


(a) A is accused of receiving stolen goods knowing them to be stolen. It is proved that he was in possession of a particular stolen article.
The fact that, at the same time, he was in possession of many other stolen articles is relevant, as tending to show that he knew each and all of the articles of which he was in possession to be stolen.

[(b) A is accused of fraudulently delivering to another person a counterfeit coin which, at the time when he delivered it, he knew to be counterfeit.
The fact that, at the time of its delivery, A was possessed of a number of other pieces of counterfeit coin is relevant.
The fact that A had been previously convicted of delivering to another person as genuine a counterfeit coin knowing it to be counterfeit is relevant.]

(c) A sues B for damage done by a dog of B’s, which B knew to be ferocious.
The fact that the dog had previously bitten X, Y and Z, and that they had made complaints to B, are relevant.

(d) The question is, whether A, the acceptor of a bill of exchange, knew that the name of a payee was fictitious.
The fact that A had accepted other bills drawn in the same manner before they could have been transmitted to him by the payee if the payee had been a real person, is relevant, as showing that A knew that the payee was a fictitious person.

(e) A is accused of defaming B by publishing an imputation intended to harm the reputation of B.
The fact of previous publications by A respecting B, showing ill-will on the part of A towards B, is relevant, as proving A’s intention to harm B’s reputation by the particular publication in question.

The facts that there was no previous quarrel between A and B, and that A repeated the matter complained of as he heard it, are relevant, as showing that A did not intend to harm the reputation of B.

(f) A is sued by B for fraudulently representing to B that C was solvent, whereby B, being induced to trust C, who was insolvent, suffered loss.
The fact that, at the time when A represented C to be solvent, C was supposed to be solvent by his neighbours and by persons dealing with him, is relevant, as showing that A made the representation in good faith.

(g) A is sued by B for the price of work done by B, upon a house of which A is owner, by the order of C, a contractor.
A’s defence is that B’s contract was with C.
The fact that A paid C for the work in question is relevant, as proving that A did, in good faith, make over to C the management of the work in question, so that C was in a position to contract with B on C’s own account, and not as agent for A.

(h) A is accused of the dishonest misappropriation of property which he had found, and the question is whether, when he appropriated it, he believed in good faith that the real owner could not be found.

The fact that public notice of the loss of the property had been given in the place where A was, is relevant, as showing that A did not in good faith believe that the real owner of the property could not be found.

The fact that A knew, or had reason to believe, that the notice was given fraudulently by C, who had heard of the loss of the property and wished to set up a false claim to it, is relevant, as showing that the fact that A knew of the notice did not disprove A’s good faith.

(i) A is charged with shooting at B with intent to kill him. In order to show A’s intent the fact of A’s having previously shot at B may be proved.

(j) A is charged with sending threatening letters to B. Threatening letters previously sent by A to B may be proved, as showing the intention of the letters.

(k) The question is, whether A has been guilty of cruelty towards B, his wife.
Expressions of their feeling towards each other shortly before or after the alleged cruelty are relevant facts.

(l) The question is whether A’s death was caused by poison.
Statements made by A during his illness as to his symptoms are relevant facts.

(m) The question is, what was the state of A’s health at the time when an assurance on his life was effected.
Statements made by A as to the state of his health at or near the time in question are relevant facts.

(n) A sues B for negligence in providing him with a carriage for hire not reasonably fit for use, whereby A was injured.
The fact that B’s attention was drawn on other occasions to the defect of that particular carriage is relevant.
The fact that B was habitually negligent about the carriages which he let to hire is irrelevant.

(o) A is tried for the murder of B by intentionally shooting him dead.
The fact that A on other occasions shot at B is relevant as showing his intention to shoot B.

The fact that A was in the habit of shooting at people with intent to murder them is irrelevant.

(p) A is tried for a crime.
The fact that he said something indicating an intention to commit that particular crime is relevant.
The fact that he said something indicating a general disposition to commit crimes of that class is irrelevant.

See also:

Section 13 Indian Evidence Act 1872 (Facts relevant when right or custom is in question)

Section 15 Indian Evidence Act 1872 (Facts bearing on question whether act was accidental or intentional)

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